Edema is a disease that affects geraniums, causing leaves to yellow and die. It is thought to be due to adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, it does not spread from plant to plant. Ivy geraniums with a large root system as compared to shoot size are particularly sensitive to this disorder.
Small yellow spots in areas between the veins are often the first symptom observed on the top of the leaf. Small, translucent, watery pustules are seen on the underside of the leaf below the yellowed areas. These "blisters" and yellowed areas usually occur first on older leaf margins. The blisters enlarge and become brown in color and corky or scabby in texture. The entire leaf may yellow, die, and drop off. This leaf death and defoliation occurs in a pattern somewhat similar to that caused by bacterial blight.
Edema is caused by an imbalance of the water uptake and loss by the plant. A high level of water absorption by the roots is favored by warm moist soil conditions while a low level of transpiration (water loss) is favored by cool air, high relative humidity, low light levels (cloudy weather), and poor ventilation. Water retention in the cells causes some cells to burst and form watery blisters. As these broken cell areas heal, they become dry and corky.
Mite (two-spotted, Tetranychus urticae Koch) feeding may also play a role in edema development. Potter and Anderson screened ivy geranium cultivars for resistance to two-spotted spider mite attack and evaluated edema severity on the mite-infested plants. There seems to be a relationship in which mite resistant cultivars develop less severe edema than mite susceptible cultivars. The authors theorized that the plant's physiology or nutritional status that results in edema development may also favor mite survival. Edema and mite resistant cultivars were "Double Lilac White," "Sunset," "Madame Margot," "Amethyst," and "Salmon Queen". The most mite and edema susceptible cultivars included "Sybil Holmes," "Yale," and "Pascal."
Edema Can Be Lessened By The Following -
Improve drainage and water less frequently;
Heat and ventilate the greenhouse to reduce humidity;
Space plants to provide good air circulation;
Water in the morning so that the soil is not too wet overnight;
Avoid wetting the leaves since wet leaves lose less water;
During cool cloudy weather, follow a watering schedule that maintains an even moisture level;
Maintain good mite control by regularly applying a miticide;
The above information was summarized from the following sources:
Balge, R. J., Struckmeyer, B. E., and Beck, G. E. 1969. Occurrence, severity, and nature of oedema in Pelargonium hortorum Ait. Jour. Am. Soc.Hort. Sci. 94:181-183.
Digat, B. and J. Albouy. 1976. Donnees actuelles sur le probleme de l'oedeme du pelargonium. Pepinieristes Horticulteurs Maraichers 168:51-55.
Mastalerz, J. W. 1971. Geraniums. A Penn State Manual. Pennsylvania Flower Growers. 103 Tyson Bldg., University Park, PA 16802. 350 pp.
Potter, D. A. and R. G. Anderson. 1982. Resistance of ivy geraniums to the two-spotted spider mite. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107:1089-1092.
Over a century ago, Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean used to be the world's leading producer of geranium oil - a fragrant oil used in cosmetics and culinary dishes.
But over the past 100 years the industry has all but died out on the island as countries like South Africa and China have stepped up commercial production.
VIDEO: BBC NEWS
1. A genuine South African
Geranium – a name that sounds like typical Bavarian farmhouse facades, a traditional German balcony boxer. But the geranium is actually an immigrant. It was originally a native of South Africa, where more than 250 wild species of the plant still grow. The first geraniums did not come to Europe until the17th century. From the Netherlands the plant then embarked on its triumphant advance across the globe.
2. Living by the wrong name
From the botanical perspective the geranium is not a member of the Geranium family. To gardeners and botanists “geranium” refers to a winter-hardy perennial shrub. The popular summer bloomers, on the other hand, are known among the experts as “pelargoniums”. The confusion about the name can be traced back to the 17th century. At that time, the first pelargoniums which were brought to Europe from South Africa were called geraniums, due to their similarity to the domestic perennial plant. Not until the 18th century did botanists recognize the differences between them and gave the genus from South Africa the name Pelargonium. Yet in many countries the correct name has never been adopted in common parlance.
3. Cultural commodity and symbol of homeland
Astonishingly enough, not only people in Germany but also in other European countries consider the geranium an integral part of their culture and a symbol of their homeland. The Swiss have even elected this easy-care blooming beauty their national flower. One wonders if there is a connection: In the 19th century pelargoniums were flourishing all across Europe, at a time when a feeling of national pride was growing in many countries.
4. Stylish room deco
Geraniums not only adorn balconies, terraces and gardens, they also make stylish room decorations. In particular the regal geranium was originally cultivated as a houseplant, and it also goes well with modern interiors. But other geraniums, such as angel and scented-leaved geraniums, also feel at home in a sunny spot indoors, where they create a gaily-coloured summer feeling. Or a really easy solution: just a few geraniums-stems in a vase or in a bouquet.
5. Culinary qualities
Bon appetit! The leaves and flowers of scented geraniums are edible. Thanks to the essential oils in their leaves, they lend not only decorative touches but also a fine aroma to meat dishes, salads and desserts. For examples, varieties with a lemon aroma add zest to salads, sorbets or tea. Rose geraniums lend a sophisticated note to puddings, cakes, jams or desserts, while geraniums with a peppermint scent are a wonderful addition to homemade lemonade. And creative cooks will put to good use to the many other aromas of scent-leaved geraniums, which range from apple to orange and peach to chocolate and cinnamon. Let’s get cooking!
6. Healing powers
Geraniums are not only decorative, but some also have healing powers. The roots of the Cape region pelargonium, for example, were used by the indigenous people of South Africa to treat respiratory disease, and to this day are a main ingredient of the natural remedy “Umckaloabo”. The essential oils in certain types of scented geraniums help alleviate depression and stress.
7. Natural insect repellent
Certain scent-leaved geraniums can effectively ward off insects, thanks to the essential oils contained in their leaves. At the slightest breeze or the lightest touch, these plants release their perfume. What may be a pleasant smell to us humans will send mosquitoes, wasps and other pesky insects on their way. The best insect repellents are geraniums with lemon and orange aromas.
8. Immense spectrum of varieties
Most people know geraniums as those bright red or white balcony boxers. Fact is, this plant is much more than that: The geranium is astonishingly versatile with its huge diversity of colours, leaves and flower shapes, sizes and growth forms. They not only bloom in red, white and pink, but also in many modern shades such as pink, violet, lilac, apricot, orange and yellow. And they come in a wide range of bicolour variants.
9. Bountiful blooms even without a green thumb
Geraniums are perfectly suited for people who can’t or don’t want to spend a lot of time caring for their plants. Because hardly any other plant is as easy-care and durable. Even those who do not have a green thumb can achieve a beautiful display of flowers with minimum time and effort.
10. Record breaker
When given proper care, geraniums can achieve record-breaking size. In the internet one can find specimens that have supposedly achieved heights of five metres or a circumference of more than ten metres.
Source: Press Release
Q. What is the difference between seed geraniums and zonal ones? Are there other types?
A. Seed geraniums are a form of zonal geranium that has been grown from seed rather than from tissue cuttings.
Both have zones of color in the leaves (that's how they get the name "zonal"), but seed geraniums are usually more compact and are often the cheapest option. Varieties differ, but they usually have lots of 3- to 4-inch flower heads. Most grow about a foot tall and wide. They are a great option for a mass planting.
Plants labeled "zonal geraniums" can have flower heads up to 6 inches across and, unlike seed geraniums, often have double flowers. But, they usually don't have as many flowers as the seed varieties. The zonal plants grow more upright and can be up to 18 inches tall. As new varieties are developed, you will see fewer differences between the seed- and tissue-propagated zonal varieties.
There are two new kinds of zonals that you may see in garden centers. For something different, look for stellar and fancy-leaf varieties.
Some other types of plants commonly sold as annual geraniums are, ivy-leaf, regal and scented-leaf. Ivy-leaf geraniums have waxy leaves that, well, look like ivy. They trail and are great in hanging baskets.
Regal geraniums, such as Martha Washington, are commonly sold as houseplants. They need cool nights to flower.
Scented leaf varieties flower, but not as impressively as other types. They are grown for the leaves, which can smell like roses, lemons, apples or mints. There is one that smells like citronella and is supposed to repel mosquitoes, but there is no proof that it works.
To confuse things a little more, these plants are called geraniums but are actually pelargoniums. Pelargoniums can be overwintered indoors or grown as a houseplant. True geraniums, sometimes called hardy geraniums or cranesbills, are tough perennials that can be planted outside and, depending on the variety, are hardy down to zone three. Like pelargoniums, they are usually ignored by deer. They don't have big balls of flowers like zonal pelargoniums, but their smaller blossoms and pretty foliage are a great addition to our gardens.
Source: U of M Extension Master Gardeners in St. Louis County
Overview and Description
We know them as simply "geraniums". They are one of the most popular container plants, yet they are not really geraniums at all. Botanically they are Pelargonium. How's that for a mouthful? There are true geraniums, the perennial cransbills, but they look little like the annul plants we commonly call geraniums.
The confusion with the names can be traced back to disagreements between botanists over classification and is of little importance to most gardeners, except for the distinction that perennial cransbill geraniums will come back each year and zonal geraniums, those now classified as Pelargonium, are topical perennials usually grown as annuals.
They got the prefix "zonal" because of the markings on their leaves.
Zonal geraniums were discovered in South Africa and if you have a similar, tropical climate, you can grow them as perennials. Along with zonal geraniums, there are 3 more commonly grown types of Pelargonium:
Zonal geraniums are bushy plants, mainly used for containers and bedding. There has been considerable breeding done, particularly for size and abundance and colors of flowers, so there is a good deal of variety.
Botanical Name:Pelargonium x hortorum
Common Name:Geranium, Zonal Geranium
Hardiness Zones: USDA Hardiness Zones 9 -12. Zonal geraniums are basically tropical perennials. Although they are often grown as annuals, they may over-winter in zones as cool as Zone 7, if they have some protection and the winter is mild.
Sun Exposure: Full sun to Partial Shade. They will bloom best in full sun.
Mature Size: Size will vary with variety. There are some dwarf geraniums that will never get more than 5 - 6 inches tall and newer varieties being bred for height and spread. In general, most are between 5 - 24 inches (12 - 60 cm) H x 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) W.
Bloom Period: Zonal geraniums start blooming in mid-spring and will repeat bloom until frost. Deadheading the entire flower stalk after the flower fades will encourage more blooms.
Design Suggestions: Zonal geraniums have gotten a bad reputation by plant snobs. They've been considered garish and common. Too many of the brightly colored plants can start to look over the top, but these plants are excellent in all kinds of containers. The brighter reds are very elegant all alone and pair well with flowers in equally bright colors, like portulaca or nasturtium.
The softer pinks and salmons complement blue and purple flowers and the lavender shades really stand out next to the chartreuse foliage of Huechera or sweet potato vines.
Soil: Zonal geraniums are not terribly fussy about soil pH, but prefer a slightly acid soil of about 5.8 to 6.5. (It's essential that the soil be well draining - these plants don't like to be wet for long!)
Planting: You can start zonal geraniums from seed, cuttings or transplants. Taking cuttings was the traditional method of propagating geraniums and maintaining favorite varieties. If you choose to take cuttings, make sure you only use healthy, vigorous plants.
Starting Geraniums from Seed: Geranium can easily be started from seed, although the seed is usually for F1 hybrids. Seed geraniums are bred to be disease resistant and to bloom well in the heat of summer.
Start seeds 8 - 10 weeks before your last frost date. They can take up to 2 weeks to germinate and should be kept warm, 70̊ and 75̊F (21̊ - 24̊C), and moist in the process. Scarifying the seed before planting will help aid germination.
Harden off young plants before planting outdoors. They should begin to bloom about a month after being set out.
Zonal geraniums are not heavy feeders, but since they are usually grown in containers, a light feeding with your favorite fertilizer, every 2-4 weeks, will keep them vigorous.
Stressing them slightly by watering only after the soil has dried out completely for a day or two seems to encouraging more profuse blooming. Just don't leave them dry for so long they start dropping leaves and declining.
If you don't live in USDA Zone 9 or higher, your plants will need some winter protection. You can bring them in and grow them as houseplants, in a bright, direct light window. You could take cuttings in mid-summer and bring these smaller plants indoors, or you can over winter your geraniums in their dormant state.
Pests & Problems:For the most part, zonal geraniums are not prone to insect pests, when grown outdoors. Indoors, aphids and whiteflies can become a nuisance.
There are a few fungal and bacterial diseases to look out for, mainly
Special thanks to the National Garden Bureau which named Pelargonium its 2012 Plant of the Year and provided research for this article.
BY: MARIE IANNOTTI
Black Leg of Geranium
M. Grabowski, UMN Extension Educator
Black leg is a stem infection of Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) that results in a distinctive black discoloration of stems. As infected stems rot, they become soft and often bend over. This disease is caused by several species of the water mold Pythium. Pythium spp. are soil dwelling organisms that thrive in wet conditions and can survive in infected plant debris and soil. Black leg symptoms often start at the soil line and move up the plant.
To avoid black leg, inspect all geraniums prior to purchase and select only healthy symptom free plants. If repotting geraniums, use new clean potting mix and new pots or pots that have been cleaned with a solution of 10% household bleach. Take care to keep tools, watering cans, and hose heads off the floor and away from dirt and plant debris. Pythium spp. can be introduced into clean potted plants by tools that have contacted contaminated dirt or plant debris. Do not over water plants.
If plants do become infected, they will not recover. Discard the plant and the potting mix. Clean the pot with a solution of 10% household bleach before reusing it.
Source: Black Leg
Is it a Geranium? Is it an Erodium? No it's a Pelargonium!
One of the most confusing generic names to any gardener is Geranium. Anyone familiar with temporary planting schemes will know the popular Bedding Geraniums. This is the rather misleading common name for hybrids of the genus Pelargonium (mainly derived from Pelargonium zonale). To distinguish them, true Geranium are often called Hardy Geraniums. Most species and hybrids of true Geraniums are able to tolerate several degrees of frost, and therefore can live outside all year round, even in cold climates. So you cannot talk just about a geranium, you have to clarify whether you mean a Bedding Geranium or a Hardy Geranium, ie. Pelargonium or Geranium respectively.
Fortunately, the two genera are quite easy to tell apart. Geraniums have flowers with 5 more or less identical petals, usually arranged in a flat or bowl shaped. Pelargoniums also have 5 petals but they are arranged 2 above and 3 below. The 2 upper petals are usually larger and broader than the lower 3 (indeed in some species the lower 3 are even missing). So Geranium flowers have radially symmetric flowers (actinomorphic), whereas Pelargonium flowers have a single plane of symmetry (zygomorphic).
This brings us on to Pelargonium incarnatum, which grows here at Phillipskop Mountain Reserve (Phillipskop Mountain Reserve is 246ha (608 acres) in size and occupies the southerly slopes of the Klein River Mountains just to the east of Stanford, on the Western Cape of South Africa). In almost every genus there is one species that refuses to obey the rules. This species of Pelargonium has perfectly radially symmetric flower. So how do we know this is a Pelargonium and not a Geranium (for there are a number of true Geranium species that grow in South Africa)? One way is to count the stamens. A true Geranium will have 10 fertile stamens (have anthers with pollen) whereas Pelargoniums will always have 7 or fewer. The remaining stamens in Pelargonium are modified in some way but always lack an anther. In Pelargonium incarnatum one can clearly see just 5 fertile stamens.
Source: Pelargonium Incarnatum
Geranium ecuadoriense is a perennial that reaches just 3-5cm tall. Leaves are rosettes, 10 by 5.5cm, ovate-cordate, shortly and rather silky-down, greyish-white with petioles 2.5cm long. Flowers are white or pale rose, winter in the wild. In other respects the plant resembles G. sericeum. Ecuador, Chimborazo, on mobile scree near the edge of the eternal snows at 4000m.
SOURCE: G. ecuardoriense
Over the last month I have been watching with anticipation the formation of a giant head of flowers on an old favourite plant in my garden, Geranium maderense. This is a very old species of geranium classified as a “true geranium” differentiating it from the many modern hybrid varieties in cultivation today.
As the name suggests, Geranium maderense hails from the island of Madiera on the north- west coast of Africa. It is a sub-tropical climate with relatively low rainfall and a rocky, craggy landscape. I first encountered this plant whilst touring in the UK back in the late 1980’s. It was growing on St. Michaels Mount, a tiny island land mass off the Cornish coast where an old monastery is now a tourist attraction only accessible at low tide. When I returned to Melbourne I was determined to find this rare beauty to try and grow it for myself but at that time it was barely known here in Australia. By good fortune I was able to get hold of a seedling from a friend who worked in a large private collectors garden in Toorak and my fascination for the plant has continued to grow ever since.
Geranium maderense is a giant among geraniums, growing to a height of 120-150cm tall by 120cm wide. It is a mound forming evergreen perennial (meaning it does not go into dormancy) with deeply divided hand sized lush green leaves. The foliage alone is textural and interesting but it is the huge flower head that is the real head turner. From early spring a giant beach ball sized head of purplish pink florets, each approximately 3cm across explodes like a firework and is a stunning sight. Each little floret has a dark purplish throat and is covered in tiny inflorescent hairs all along the stem which glisten in the sunlight. The anticipation of these huge flower heads is the sort of thing that tests a gardeners’ patience as it takes two years for a young seed grown plant to reach flowering maturity.
Another unique feature of this plant is the formation of props by the lower, older leaf stalks (petioles) which turn downwards toward the ground and serve to prop up the heavy stem whilst also returning water to the root zone around the plant. This is probably an evolutionary adaptation resulting from the poor quality soils where the plant comes from and the fact that it has a surprisingly small root system comparative to the plants’ size.
Geranium maderense makes a stunning addition to a garden and looks especially pleasing when planted in drifts under the canopy of overhanging trees. It does best when protected from afternoon sun and prefers a well drained loamy soil with moderate water requirements.
Unfortunately it is not an easy plant to find in nurseries as there are hardly any growers who produce it. This puts it in the “collectors plant” category so don’t be frustrated if you can’t find it easily. You may stumble upon it one day and I guarantee the wait will be worth it.
Article by Kevin Mankey
Source: A Garden Event Worth Waiting For
If you're a true geranium lover, you're probably spending time looking online at all the pictures you can find of these amazing plants. If you live in the US like me, you're seeing plants you've never seen here - and probably never will - and zonartics are in that category. I started seeing some really gorgeous, unusual plants from Australia labeled as "zonartics" - and I had no idea what that meant. Well - here's the skinny from the man himself - Cliff Blackman, from Victoria, Australia!
Developing the Lara Zonartic Hybrids ( 1985-2006)
The Yellow Light at the end of the Tunnel
Cliff Blackman, Victoria, Australia
From the presentation to the International Pelargonium and Geranium Conference,
October 2006, Geelong, Australia
The possibility of breeding a yellow pelargonium cultivar has been on the wish list of many growers and breeders ever since the red flowered zonal “geranium” became popular in the 19th century.
The Lara zonartic hybrids that are shown here are some of the results during 22 years of breeding with hybrid plants that were initially raised from crosses of a zonal or a zonal/ ivy cultivar as the seed parent and the species Pelargonium articulatum as the pollen parent. There have been many interesting flower forms and colours produced from this line of breeding. This is possibly the first occasion that this species has been used for hybridizing with zonal varieties or other species.
Pelargonium articulatum is indigenous to Southern Africa. This pelargonium species is "characterized by an underground rhizome consisting of alternating thick and thin portions". Generally there is little stem growth above soil level. It has a deciduous nature - with early leaf senescence, which is very unappealing at the time the flowers are blooming. The pale yellow flowers are attractive; the few flower stems produce only 2 to 5 florets each and the flowering season is rather brief. These yellow flowers are the main attraction for breeding with this species, although the short nodal distance and the mild leaf scent are possibly useful characters. The deciduous nature is of doubtful benefit. There are other characters that are not suitable for breeding purposes such as the long thin petioles that tend to let the leaf blades droop. This is the growth behaviour when container grown in captivity far away from its natural habitat.
When a species such as Pelargonium articulatum has been combined with a zonal cultivar or a zonal cultivar that has an unknown percentage of ivy pelargonium genes in its lineage, there is a great deal of uncertainty about what the resulting hybrids will be like. In 1985 when the first cross-pollinations were initiated the main interest was whether there would be any yellow in the flowers from the contribution of the 50% articulatum genes.
This first hybrid seedling was raised in 1986. Their composition was 50% zonal & 50% articulatum. The resulting flowers were single and white with a pale reddish blush on the upper petals.
These are another 3 of the1986 original hybrid seedlings. They were partly deciduous; their form and habit is about midway between the parents. They have a non-symmetrical form and very irregular branching. The fact that articulatum did combine with a zonal type cultivar to produce a new hybrid breed was itself an exciting development.
The method of plant breeding that has been used during this period is the selection of the parents and the controlled transfer of the pollen onto the stigma of the intended seed parent and of course raising the seedlings.
Any progeny of the plant world will have inherited half of its genetic make up from each parent. This combination of both parent’s genetic heritage will generally produce plants that are mid-way between the appearance and habit of the parents, though sometimes there can be a dominance of habit inherited from either one of the parents. This factor becomes more apparent when there are numerous hybrid seedlings raised, as it is then possible to compare the visual differences of the form, flowers and growth habit. Up to the present date there has not been two of these hybrid seedlings exactly alike; in fact they all have a unique individuality that is demonstrated by their visual differences.
In the year of 1987 several hybrid seedlings with (25% zonal and 75% articulatum) in their composition were raised; the best of these had single pale yellow flowers that faded in a few days. During the following 7 years, there were many hundreds of these hybrids raised with varying percentages of zonal and articulatum in their composition. The year 1993 gave a start to changes and improvement in the flower form & colours. The year 1994 produced the first semi-double yellow flowered hybrid 94171 but this had a much too high, almost 80% of Pelargonium articulatum in its composition that gave this seedling an irregular form. However this was a significant step towards developing a desired yellow flowered cultivar and did confirm that the yellow in the flowers of articulatum can be inherited by its hybrid offspring.
The flower of 94171 has about the same colour as the flower of species P. articulatum
This is part of the Zonartic Family Tree, showing the line of descent to seedling 94171 - the first semi-double, yellow zonartic. Three of the originating parents are at the top of the Lineage Tree. 'Lara Purnal' - 'Princess Fiat' and 'Millfield Gem'. Then two seedlings from combinations of these parents: ‘Lara Classic’ and ‘Lara Polka’ were crossed with P. articulatum the pollen parent in November 1985. ‘Lara Signal’ was used later. These are the original ingredients of the Zonartic hybrids. !f you follow the line of descent to 94171 you will notice that articulatum is introduced into the line 6 times during that period, also when it was used as a seed parent or pollen parent. The seed parent is always shown on the left side of the combination.
The Coined Name Zonartic
It was about this year, 1994 that the name of ‘zonartic’ was coined; this name was made up from the ‘z-o-n’ of zonal and the ‘a-r-t-i-c’ of articulatum, forming the name ‘zonartic’. [The name of ‘Lara’ had been accepted and registered as a plant breeder’s prefix about 1976].
At this point in 1994 it was briefly thought the development of a yellow flowered commercial cultivar was possibly just around the corner, but then; because of the form and habit of these hybrids which do include some unwanted characters inherited from species articulatum - it was soon realized this could be many years away. However the arrival of the semi-double yellow flower with 9 to 11 petals was a big improvement on the appearance of the yellow flowers and was definitely an encouragement to continue on the journey.
There was no quick way to improve the form and at the same time produce seedlings with yellow flowers. Each year the parents for the next years seedlings were selected to produce hybrid plants that could possibly have yellow flowers, but seeking to have a minimum percentage of articulatum that is needed to obtain this result. The percentage of articulatum has been a useful reference point in the selection of parents. With these hybrids the different percentages of this species and the zonal parent proportions in each individual seedling can produce quite different forms – also that a high percentage of yellow genes are necessary to produce seedlings having yellow flowers. With the early combinations they generally required at least 65% of this species. At that period the flower colour permanence was not as good. This has improved over the years by selecting for this habit.
Another direction being used at the same time was to select parents to work towards an upright symmetrical form and habit, but having a maximum percentage of articulatum in its composition that will allow this result. The seedlings of the two directions were often selected and combined for the following generation of seedlings.
During the process of endeavoring to obtain a suitable yellow flowered cultivar there were many surprising and welcome spin-offs. The year 1993 was the beginning of this period when there were very surprising and appealing changes to some of the flower forms and colours including bi-colours and tri-colours, also the individual flowers were larger on these hybrids than previously seen on the average zonal cultivar. This development was rather fascinating and did broaden the overall objective to include working towards any of the new flower forms and colours that were on the increase. But here again there was always a need for a better plant structure and habit.
Because of the necessity to change the plant form to a more symmetrical and upright structure it was found beneficial to introduce more of the zonal influence into the zonartic line and at the same time try to maintain the yellow flowers.
Selection of the parent plants is one of the most important requirements in the desire for getting improvements or decreasing any of the unwanted habit. Of course when there are multiple changes required, as is the case with the hybrids of articulatum – a change does sometimes go one step forward with the flower colour but one step back with the petiole length or early leaf senescence or plant structure or the size and number of florets. There are so many characters that can be affected by the large gene pool that have been inherited by these hybrids, any of which can influence the resulting seedlings in this ongoing development process - possibly some of these characters are linked, making it more difficult to separate the wanted features that go into the make up of a new range of cultivars.
The whole exercise of breeding and hybridizing plants is basically by taking advantage of the opportunities that nature can and does offer. The process can be assisted by creating a situation or condition that gives this possibility a chance to happen. This may be considered to be just a trial and error procedure and to some extent it is because this is unknown ground and can only be travelled by anticipated results, possibilities, choices and selections in a methodical regime.
When attempting cross-pollinations and also when trying for a reciprocal cross of the selected parents it is often necessary to repeat many of the same crosses to obtain viable seed. There is always a possible failure because of an incompatible factor with what are otherwise normally fertile cultivars. For this reason it is important to also use several similar pollen or seed parent alternatives that are mutually fertile to get positive fertilization results that will produce seeds that may include some with the required changes. The more seeds that can be obtained from suitable parents will certainly increase the chances of raising new plants that have the desired improvements.
There are a series of interesting times and exciting moments in the basic process of producing hybrid seedlings. The first in this cycle of events would be whilst making the cross pollination of the chosen parents. Usually within 24 to 48 hours the first indication of a successful fertilization is seeing the petals fall, the five arms of the stigma sometimes close together and the sepals close around the style, then usually after 4 or 5 days the ovarian beak commences to elongate. About 4 to 5 weeks later the harvesting of the ripened seed gives hope for the dream about the possible results. The first week in February is usually the time to start sprouting the new generation of seedlings – weather permitting! Two weeks later the majority of the sprouted seeds will have been transferred into small pots. There is not a long waiting period to observe any form change or petiole length reduction - as there are indications of these changes during the first 2 to 4 months of growth. After about 9 or 10 months from sprouting it is flowering time, this is certainly the most exciting period in the yearly breeding cycle – the culminating moment of the year’s hopes and the wonderful feeling when sometimes seeing a new and beautiful flower opening up. It is always more exciting if being seen for the first time. Each new creation follows with opportunities for attempting other creative combinations.
One of the more interesting outcomes has been the appeal of the flower forms and colours. Their longer pedicels can give a more open form of inflorescence, also the unusually long flower stem and their lasting quality has made some suitable for use as cut flowers.
To summarize with 7 essential ingredients for this journey would include:
1. Having a plant of P. articulatum #1571A from Stellenbosch in 1984 - this was kindly given by Dr. Piet Vorster.
2. The natural forces that are part of the creative environment are a necessary element in life’s many processes.
3. The ability of articulatum to combine with zonal type pelargonium cultivars when using controlled cross-pollination techniques.
4. Having hybrid progeny that are fully fertile and which are compatible with self-pollinations and new combinations with seedlings and parent plants of this new family.
5. Making sure all of the lineage and photographic details are recorded.
6. Having perseverance, time and luck with an overwhelming interest in the whole procedure.
7. Last but not least, a tolerant and encouraging wife.
Posts are made by Brenda Archer or Sharon Pearce - both are past Presidents of the San Diego Geranium Society!