How to Care for Fancy Leaf Geraniums
by Karen Carter, Demand Media
Fancy leaf geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum) are commonly known as zonal geraniums. These perennials stay evergreen in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 and 11, but grow as annuals in colder climates. Reaching 1 to 3 feet tall, this shrubby mounded plant is made up of green leaves marked with contrasting colors. Clusters of red, purple, pink, orange or white blossoms appear on top of long stalks throughout the growing season. With the proper care, fancy leaf geraniums will provide a gardener with nearly year-round beauty. Here's how -
1. Locate the fancy leaf geraniums in an area with at least four to six hours of direct sunlight per day. On hot summer days, geraniums benefit from light shade. Either move potted geraniums into the shade or erect a sunshade in the afternoon. These plants prefer temperatures around 60 degrees Fahrenheit, but will do well in a range of temperatures.
2. Pour water on the soil around the base of the geranium until the soil is damp to the depth of the roots. Allow the top 3 inches of soil to dry before watering again.
3. Pinch off the ends of the stems while the plant is producing fresh growth in the spring. This encourages the stems to branch out, producing a bushier plant. When the flower clusters begin to dry out, deadhead the blossoms by snapping the tall stalk of the plant. Do not let the flowers dry out completely on the geranium plant since this will cause the plant to stop blooming.
4. Feed fancy leaf geraniums during active growing months, but do not fertilize them in the winter. Mix a water-soluble 10-10-10 fertilizer with twice the recommended amount of water for a batch of half-strength fertilizer. Water the geraniums with the fertilizer mixture every two weeks.
5. Overwinter the geraniums in a sheltered area for the winter. For potted plants, bring them indoors before the first hard frost and place them in a sunny window. Reduce watering, but do not let the roots dry out. Another option is to cut the garden plants back to 6 inches tall with pruning shears. Lift the plants from the garden with a shovel and place them in a box of peat moss located in a dark frost-free area. Replant them outside in the spring after all danger of frost has passed. (If you live in San Diego County, there's no need to uproot your plants during our typically mild winters!)
A PASSION FOR PELARGONIUMS
These six unique varieties of pelargoniums are quite rare and mysterious—and worth tracking down.
By Susan Heeger/Garden Design Magazine
Photos by Marion Brenner
To lose your heart to pelargoniums, you must first know they’re not geraniums (the two are often confused). Nor are all of them splashy, red hybrids—those common pelargoniums can be found in countless backyards. No, the path to obsession is to know that some examples of this plant—like the ones on this page—are quite rare and mysterious. With thick, rough roots and knobby stems that sprout fine leaves and small blooms worth studying up close, some pelargoniums can look like Japanese bonsais or desert shrubs. Mostly native to South Africa, “pellies” are exquisitely attuned to the demands of their former home.
P. cotyledonis - Because of roaming goats, this species is endangered on its native St. Helena, an island off the coast of West Africa. Resembling a Lilliputian tree with heart-shape leaves, it blooms white from spring into summer and appreciates a bit of summer shade.
Pelargonium caffrum, which hails from the coastal hills of the Eastern Cape, develops extra-long flower stems that push through the grasses. Meanwhile, P. crithmifolium wraps a veil around itself after blooming to discourage browsing animals. Others have night-scented flowers that beckon nocturnal pollinators or ample blue-gray leaves that ward off salty sea spray. Ranging from a few inches to several feet wide and tall, some scramble like vines or grow trunks like little trees. Their leaves might be narrow, heart- or palm-shape, densely fuzzy, or sleekly smooth; their flowers (some fringed exotically) come in a spectrum of whites, reds, yellow-greens, and almost-blacks. Most have odd, fleshy roots, which sustain the plants through dormant seasons. This dainty summer bloomer from South Africa’s Cape Province grows 15 to 18 inches tall in the wild and erupts in fringed, unscented, wine-colored flowers. It dislikes extreme heat, preferring morning sun and shady afternoons. Keep it slightly moist during the growing season.
Robin Parer has been growing pelargoniums—along with geraniums and erodiums—for more than 35 years. Parer, a native Australian, fell for the entire Geraniaceae family in her youth, beginning with collectible, scented-leaf pelargoniums and moving on to grow and sell more than 900 varieties through her aptly named nursery, Geraniaceae, in Marin County, California. Parer traveled to South Africa to track down her favorites in their natural habitats, from the vinelike P. gibbosum along the country’s rocky Western Cape to the long-living P. schizopetalum, which she found in the haunting Drakensberg mountains.
P. gibbosum - This is a coastal species and vinelike scrambler with long, semi-succulent leaves and stems that grow woody with age and flower yellow-green in winter. Parer describes its night-fragrant blooms as “strange and sweet, vanilla - and clove-scented with a feral note.”
Parer tells her clients that once you know a pellie’s origins and habits—whether it naturally thrives on fog-bound bluffs or blooms in winter, for instance—they’re not difficult to please. To that she adds a few key rules: Don’t water pellies when they’re dormant. Given their origins, pellies can’t tolerate heavy soil or freezing temperatures, which, in most parts of the United States, means growing them in containers and whisking them indoors for the winter. In milder regions (USDA Zones 9 and 10), one can plant them in garden beds with very good drainage, making sure they have some shelter from the hottest summer sun.
P. curviandrum - Not often grown because of its long summer dormancy, this species thrives in mountainous scrubland on South Africa’s very dry Southern Cape. A rosette of hairy leaves sprouts from its underground tuber in spring, followed by tiny white-and-burgundy flowers.
The rewards of cultivating pellies, says Parer, far outweigh the demands. As the plants cycle through the year, they dramatize “the subtle intricacies of nature.” The greatest challenge might be laying hands on these collectors’ gems, which, admittedly, is part of their charm. “You have to really look,” Parer says. “It’s like a treasure hunt!”,
P. triste - The first pelargonium introduced to England in the 17th century, this species has been cultivated for 400 years. Bonsai enthusiasts grow it high in the pot, exposing its knobbed tuber, which the plant doesn’t mind. It has night-scented winter blossoms, and its leaf color and form varies.
P. carneum - This rare species produces large (1.5-inch), unscented autumn flowers after its leaves drop. Hard to propagate, it hails from rocky crevices and scrub in the limestone hills of South Africa’s Southern Cape. In a pot, it grows a mere 5 inches wide and 8 to 10 inches tall from a turnip-shape tuber.
Posts are made by Brenda Archer or Sharon Pearce - both are past Presidents of the San Diego Geranium Society!